Deep Dive into Layer 2 Sequencers: the Centralization Challenge

Table of Contents
In the rapidly evolving landscape of Layer-2 (L2), rollups have emerged as a promising solution to address the scalability and cost issues plaguing major blockchain networks like Ethereum. Rollups promise faster transactions and reduced gas fees for users, making them an attractive option for those seeking an improved blockchain experience. However, behind the scenes, a critical issue has arisen – the centralization of sequencers.

I. Why Roll Ups Use Sequencers and Why It Is an Issue

Benefits of Sequencers
A blockchain, at its core, is an ordered ledger of transactions. Sequencers play a vital role in this process by organizing and ordering transactions into blocks. In the case of Layer-1 (L1) blockchains like Ethereum, transaction sequencing takes place on the base layer. However, L2 rollups introduce a new layer of complexity. Sequencers, in the L2 rollup world, are entities responsible for ordering transactions into groups. This crucial function offers several benefits, including reduced gas fees, quicker transaction confirmations, and a smoother user experience.
Rollups' Design Choices
It's essential to understand that sequencers are not a necessity for rollups; they are a design choice made to enhance the user experience. Rollups could potentially use the Ethereum L1 for both data availability and sequencing. However, this approach comes with inefficiencies, as the Ethereum L1 might struggle to handle the high volume of L2 transactions. As a result, most major L2 rollup projects have opted for centralized sequencers, citing convenience, cost-effectiveness, and user-friendliness.
Centralization Risks
Centralized sequencers, while improving user experience, introduce centralization risks. A single sequencer has control over transaction ordering, potentially excluding user transactions and extracting Maximum Extractable Value (MEV) from transaction groups. In the current landscape, most major rollups rely on a sole sequencer, exacerbating centralization concerns. Liveness issues also arise if the sole sequencer experiences downtime, affecting the entire rollup. While users can bypass sequencers and submit transactions directly to the L1, this negates the purpose of using an L2 rollup for cost-effective and efficient transactions.

II. The Current State of Sequencers in L2 Rollups

Understanding MEV
MEV, or Maximum Extractable Value, is a critical concept in the context of sequencers. It refers to the additional value that can be extracted beyond traditional mining or staking rewards and gas fees through manipulation of transactions within a block. Common MEV extraction methods include frontrunning and sandwich attacks.
MEV in the Context of Sequencers
Sequencers, as central players in L2 rollups, possess knowledge of all user transactions off-chain. With many sequencers operated by project teams, concerns arise about potential undisclosed MEV extraction. This situation raises questions about the trustlessness and decentralization of these protocols.
Centralization in L2 Rollups
At present, all major Ethereum L2 rollups rely on centralized sequencers. Despite Ethereum's decentralization, a substantial portion of its transactions, particularly those on L2s, falls under the control of a sole sequencer. While rollups acknowledge the need for decentralization, progress in this direction has been relatively slow.
Efforts to Address Centralization
Efforts have been made to address centralization concerns in L2 rollups. Several projects have included sequencer decentralization in their roadmaps, signaling a shift towards improving trustlessness. However, the competitive environment has prioritized product development over decentralization.
Challenges in Decentralization
Discussions surrounding centralization risks persist. Sequencers hold the power to reorder transactions for MEV extraction, especially with private mempools. Additionally, the issue of liveness arises, as a centralized sequencer's downtime can disrupt the entire rollup.

III. The Solution: Shared Sequencers

Overview of Shared Sequencers
Recognizing the need to combat centralization, decentralized, shared sequencers have emerged as a potential solution. These sequencers aim to decentralize transaction ordering and data availability, mitigating MEV extraction and censorship risks. Multiple rollups can use the same network, allowing for conditional transaction inclusion and cross-rollup composability.
Benefits of Decentralized Sequencers
Decentralized sequencers offer enhanced security, liveness, and trustlessness by engaging Ethereum's existing validator set. Restaking contracts, such as EigenLayer, facilitate collaboration between L1 validators and sequencer protocols, ensuring economic security.
Role in Enhancing Trustlessness
Shared sequencers also promote trustlessness as they provide a cost-effective solution for rollups, allowing them to focus on performance optimization and differentiation. This approach aligns with the core principles of blockchain, preventing dependence on a single centralized provider.

IV. Espresso Systems: A Case Study

Introduction to Espresso Systems
Espresso Systems is at the forefront of developing tools to mainstream Web3 technologies, with a focus on L2 rollups and the Ethereum ecosystem. Their work extends beyond sequencers and includes contributions to blockchain privacy, open-source developer tools, and cryptography libraries.
The Espresso Sequencer
Espresso Sequencer, a decentralized shared sequencing network, aims to decentralize rollups while ensuring secure, high-throughput, and low-latency transaction ordering and data availability. Its consensus protocol, HotShot, combines various advancements to achieve these goals. Leveraging Ethereum's validator set enhances security and incentive alignment.
Tiramisu Data Availability Solution
Espresso addresses the data availability challenge with Tiramisu, a multi-layered solution that ensures data availability to rollups efficiently. It consists of Savoiardi, Mascarpone, and Cocoa layers, each designed to enhance data security and dissemination.
Notable Partnerships
Espresso has formed partnerships with key players in the blockchain ecosystem, such as EigenLayer, Polygon zkEVM, AltLayer, Caldera, and Spire. These collaborations demonstrate a commitment to creating a robust and decentralized infrastructure for L2 rollups.
Latest Updates on Espresso Sequencer
Espresso has made significant strides in its efforts to provide a decentralized solution for sequencers. With testnets and partnerships, Espresso's Sequencer is on track to address centralization concerns in L2 rollups effectively.

V. Other Players in the Decentralized Sequencer Space

Overview of Competing Projects
While Espresso Systems takes a leading role in pioneering decentralized, shared sequencers, it is not alone in the quest to address the centralization challenges inherent in Layer 2 (L2) rollups. Several other projects are actively exploring alternative approaches and technologies to offer more trustless and secure sequencer solutions for the blockchain community.
One notable contender in this space is Astria, a project dedicated to building a decentralized sequencing layer for L2 rollups. Astria's approach centers around the use of a decentralized validator set, inspired by the principles of Layer 1 (L1) blockchains like Ethereum. By leveraging a distributed network of validators, Astria aims to ensure the reliability and trustlessness of sequencers.
Another project making strides in sequencer decentralization is Vela, which introduces an innovative approach known as "validator shuffling." Vela's sequencer architecture regularly rotates the validators responsible for transaction ordering, reducing the risk of centralization and censorship. This dynamic approach to validator selection aligns with the ethos of decentralization.
Their Approaches to Decentralization
These competing projects differ in their approaches to achieving sequencer decentralization, but they share the common goal of reducing centralization risks and enhancing the overall integrity of L2 rollup ecosystems.
Astria focuses on building a robust validator network by incorporating principles from Ethereum's L1 architecture. Validators in the Astria network play a crucial role in both securing the network and ensuring fair transaction ordering. The project emphasizes the importance of economic incentives to encourage validators to act in the best interests of the network, aligning incentives with decentralization.
Vela takes a dynamic approach to decentralization by implementing validator shuffling. This approach periodically changes the validators responsible for transaction sequencing, reducing the likelihood of collusion or centralization. Validator shuffling enhances security and trustlessness by ensuring that no single entity gains undue influence over the sequencing process.


In the world of Layer 2 rollups, the centralization of sequencers poses a significant challenge to the ideals of blockchain technology. While the benefits of sequencers in improving user experience are evident, addressing the centralization issue is paramount. The rise of decentralized, shared sequencers, exemplified by projects like Espresso Systems, offers a promising solution. These sequencers hold the key to enhancing trustlessness

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