Layer 3 in Blockchain: A Deep Dive into Starknet's App Chains

Table of Contents
Layer 3, particularly in the form of App Chains, stands as a crucial innovation, offering unparalleled customization and adaptability to meet the precise needs of various applications in crypto space. Specifically, within the Starknet ecosystem, Layer 3 unfolds a myriad of possibilities, offering a diverse array of benefits and opportunities. This exploration aims to delve into the intricacies of Layer 3, its significance within Starknet's environment, the advantages it presents, and the pivotal role of Madara, the Starknet sequencer, in driving this evolution.

I. Understanding Layer 3

What is Layer 3 (App Chains)?
Layer 3, or App Chains, represent a unique approach to blockchain, allowing the creation of specialized blockchains tailored to specific application requirements. These chains offer unparalleled customization, influencing elements like hash functions and consensus algorithms, while inheriting the security features of underlying Layer 1 or Layer 2 blockchains.
Purpose and Customization in App Chains
The primary purpose of App Chains lies in their ability to provide tailored solutions for diverse applications. The customization capabilities extend to various facets of blockchain technology, fostering a more adaptable and application-specific environment.
Source: Starknet- The starknet book

II. Layer 3 in the Starknet Environment

Building Layers on Top of Starknet
The adaptability and versatility of Layer 3 allow for the construction of additional layers, extending the capabilities of the Starknet architecture. These added tiers, such as Layer 4 and beyond, enable a sophisticated and multifaceted system that caters to diverse application needs. Each layer functions as an extension, providing a specialized environment that fosters the development of more intricate and application-specific solutions.
The ability to build on top of Starknet allows for a hierarchical structure, much like a digital ecosystem of interconnected blockchains. This framework provides a scalable and flexible foundation, accommodating the growing demands of various decentralized applications. These layers not only offer additional functionalities but also create a more nuanced environment for blockchain development, emphasizing adaptability and customization.
Examples of Layer 3 Configurations
1. Public and Optimized Starknet Variants
Within the Starknet ecosystem, variants such as the Public Starknet and Optimized Starknet configurations showcase the spectrum of possibilities offered by Layer 3. The Public Starknet serves as a general-purpose blockchain for decentralized applications, catering to a wide range of functionalities. In contrast, the Optimized Starknet variant focuses on specific application needs, offering tailored solutions optimized for particular use cases. This diversity enables developers to choose the configuration that best aligns with their application's requirements, emphasizing efficiency and functionality.
2. StarkEx Systems and Privacy-Focused Instances
Further demonstrating the versatility of Layer 3, configurations like StarkEx Systems and Privacy-Focused Instances cater to specific needs within the blockchain ecosystem. StarkEx Systems, utilized by platforms like dYdX and Sorare, present solutions for scalability through data availability systems like Validium or Rollup, ensuring the efficient processing of transactions. Privacy-Focused Instances, on the other hand, emphasize anonymity and data privacy, functioning as a Layer 4 solution, allowing for confidential transactions without exposure in public Starknets. These configurations underscore the dynamic nature of Layer 3, offering specialized environments for different application requirements.
Source: @Starknet - post on X

III. Benefits of Layer 3

Layer 3, in the form of App Chains, introduces a host of advantages that significantly influence the landscape of blockchain applications. The nuanced features and tailored solutions offered by these chains bring about several crucial benefits, fostering a more adaptable and application-specific environment.
Quick Iteration
App Chains facilitate rapid protocol changes and iterations, liberating developers from the constraints imposed by the public Layer 2 roadmap. This agility allows for swift deployment of new decentralized finance (DeFi) algorithms or any innovative feature tailored to specific user bases. The ability to swiftly implement changes is a pivotal advantage in the fast-paced world of blockchain technology.
Governance Independence
One of the key benefits of App Chains is the complete control retained over feature development and improvements. This independence from decentralized governance consensus streamlines the implementation of user-suggested features or any necessary alterations without protracted decision-making processes. This freedom to innovate empowers developers to respond swiftly to market demands and user needs.
Cost Efficiency
Layer 3 presents a substantial reduction in operational costs, potentially up to a million times more cost-efficient compared to Layer 1 blockchains. This drastic cost reduction opens up the possibility of running more complex applications without incurring exorbitant expenses. The economic feasibility of Layer 3 solutions makes them an attractive option for various applications.
Security Measures
While there might be certain trade-offs, such as reduced censorship resistance, the core security mechanisms within Layer 3 remain robust. These chains inherit the security features of the underlying Layer 1 or Layer 2 blockchains they are built upon, ensuring a fundamental level of security even as they cater to application-specific requirements.
Congestion Avoidance
App Chains operate independently of network congestion, ensuring a more stable transaction environment. This stability is particularly crucial for real-time applications like gaming, where delays or interruptions could significantly impact user experience. The shielded nature of these chains from network congestion provides a seamless and efficient transactional experience.
Privacy Enhancements
Layer 3 serves as a testing ground for privacy-centric features, including anonymous transactions and encrypted messaging services. This experimental space allows developers to explore and implement enhanced privacy features without compromising the core functionalities of the blockchain, catering to a growing need for confidentiality in transactions.
Platform for Innovation
App Chains function as experimental fields for the development and testing of novel features and technologies. They provide a safe space for the exploration of new consensus algorithms, experimental functionalities, and other innovative solutions before their deployment in Layer 2. This innovation platform fosters a culture of continuous improvement and discovery within the blockchain sphere.

IV. Understanding Madara: The Starknet Sequencer

Source: @Starknet - post on X
A. Role and Functionality of Madara
Madara, an open-source Starknet sequencer developed using Substrate, serves as the backbone of transaction processing and block generation within the Starknet ecosystem. Its functionality encapsulates the critical aspects of ensuring seamless execution and validation of transactions, playing a central role in maintaining the integrity and efficiency of the Starknet environment.
Madara's responsibilities span across a spectrum of crucial functions. As a sequencer, it orchestrates the flow of transactions within the network, receiving, processing, and arranging these transactions into blocks. Through its execution of the CAIRO virtual machine on Starknet, it generates blocks that are subsequently verified by the prover component, ensuring the validity and security of the transactional data.
B. Use Cases and Implementations
Running Smart Contracts on a Proprietary Network
One of the pivotal applications of Madara lies in its capacity to enable the execution of Starknet smart contracts on a proprietary network, distinct from the public network. This capacity allows for the potential implementation of Layer 2 or even Layer 3 solutions tethered to the Ethereum blockchain. By running contracts on a separate network, Madara provides a testing ground for new features and enhancements, without directly impacting the mainnet.
Madara's Role in Layer 2 and Layer 3 Solutions
Madara's significance extends beyond its function as a sequencer. It actively contributes to the evolution and development of Layer 2 and Layer 3 solutions. By facilitating the execution and settlement of data on Ethereum, Madara plays a crucial role in the creation and sustenance of innovative blockchain architectures, providing a space for experimentation and evolution.
Madara's open-source nature and its foundational role in the Starknet ecosystem contribute significantly to the decentralization and accessibility of Validity (ZK) Rollup technology. With a community of over 70 contributors from diverse backgrounds and companies, Madara embodies collaborative development in the crypto sphere, pushing the boundaries of innovation and scalability.


Layer 3, particularly in the form of App Chains within the Starknet ecosystem, brings forth a paradigm shift in blockchain development. The flexibility, cost-efficiency, and environment for innovation that Layer 3 offers, coupled with the instrumental role of Madara as a sequencer, present a promising future for tailored, application-specific blockchain solutions. As blockchain technology continues to evolve, Layer 3 stands as a beacon of adaptability and customization, driving the next phase of blockchain application development.

About Orochi Network

Orochi Network is a cutting-edge zkOS (An operating system based on zero-knowledge proof) designed to tackle the challenges of computation limitation, data correctness, and data availability in the Web3 industry. With the well-rounded solutions for Web3 Applications, Orochi Network omits the current performance-related barriers and makes ways for more comprehensive dApps hence, becoming the backbone of Web3's infrastructure landscape.
Event Recap
Monthly Report
Verifiable Random Function
Zero-Knowledge Proofs
Top Posts
Partnership Announcement
Layer 2
Event Recap
Immutable Ledger
Verifiable Random Function
Zero-Knowledge Proofs
Multisignature Wallet

Orosign Wallet

Manage all digital assets safely and securely from your mobile devices

zkDatabaseDownload Orosign Wallet
Coming soon

zkOS for Web3

© 2021 Orochi