Earning Opportunities in Modular Blockchain Ecosystems

Table of Contents
With modular blockchain ecosystems emerging as a new frontier of innovation and investment. In this article, we will dive into the rise of modular blockchains, their unique characteristics, and the exciting earning opportunities they present. We will also explore the role of Miner Extractable Value (MEV) in these ecosystems and their future outlook.

I. The Rise of Modular Blockchains

What is a Modular Blockchain?
Modular blockchains represent a paradigm shift from monolithic, all-encompassing smart contract platforms like Ethereum. These ecosystems are designed to split the functions performed by such platforms into separate layers, allowing for greater efficiency and scalability.
Challenges of Monolithic Blockchains
The limitations of monolithic blockchains became evident as real usage began to congest the networks and increase costs for users. The dream of a single "World Computer" for all blockchain applications seemed impractical.
Emergence of Layer-2 Rollups and Appchains
In response to these challenges, layer-2 rollups and appchains have emerged. These modular blockchains provide specialized resources for execution, settlement/consensus, and data availability, leading to improved performance without compromising decentralization and security.

II. Understanding Modular Blockchain Ecosystems

Different Resources Required by Blockchains
To understand the value of modular blockchains, it's essential to recognize that blockchain transactions demand various resources. These primarily include execution, settlement/consensus, and data availability.
Specialized Blockchains for Efficiency
Modular blockchains harness the power of specialized blockchains to provide these distinct resources efficiently, rather than relying on a single blockchain to do it all. This approach enhances performance and reduces costs.
Examples within the Ethereum Ecosystem
In the Ethereum ecosystem, we've already witnessed the emergence of multiple rollups, such as Optimism, Arbitrum, and Starkware, which serve as execution environments using Ethereum as a settlement/consensus and data availability layer.

III. Value Accrual in Modular Blockchains

In the world of modular blockchains, understanding the allocation of value is paramount. It is essential to grasp how different layers within these ecosystems interact and how various factors contribute to value generation and distribution.
Allocation of Transaction Fees
One of the most pressing questions for investors and stakeholders in modular blockchain ecosystems revolves around the allocation of transaction fees. When users engage with these systems, paying fees for their activities, it raises the critical question of which layer captures the majority of those fees. Is it the Layer 1 token, Layer 2 token, or the data availability (DA) layer token? This distribution of fees has significant implications for the ecosystem's sustainability and attractiveness to investors.
Sources of Value Generation
Within modular blockchain ecosystems, four primary sources contribute to the generation of value, each with its unique characteristics and dynamics.
1. Execution
Execution refers to the process of running smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps) on the blockchain. In traditional monolithic blockchains like Ethereum, execution fees can be substantial, often leading to high transaction costs for users. However, modular blockchains aim to optimize this process, resulting in significantly lower execution fees. This reduction in execution costs enhances the attractiveness of decentralized applications and contributes to overall value generation within the ecosystem.
2. Data Availability
Data availability is a critical aspect of blockchain functionality, ensuring that transaction data and smart contract outputs are accessible to all network participants. In the early days of blockchains, data availability came at a high gas cost, posing challenges for scalability. However, recent innovations, such as Ethereum Improvement Proposal 4844 (EIP-4844) and data availability sampling, have dramatically reduced data availability costs. This reduction in costs benefits users and developers, making blockchain-based applications more affordable and accessible.
3. Settlement
Settlement refers to the finalization of transactions on the blockchain, including reaching consensus on the state of the network. Within modular blockchain ecosystems, a significant portion of transaction fees is allocated to Layer 1 settlement and data availability fees. This allocation typically accounts for approximately 70-80% of the fees paid by users. These fees contribute to the security and stability of the entire ecosystem, ensuring the integrity of transactions.
4. MEV (Miner/Maxer Extractable Value)
MEV has emerged as a pivotal factor in the value accrual landscape of blockchain ecosystems. MEV represents the additional value that miners, validators, and other participants can extract by controlling the order of transactions within a block. In traditional blockchains, MEV opportunities have become increasingly significant, with validators adding to their native yield by accepting payments for transaction ordering via MEV. While MEV strategies are still evolving within modular blockchains, it is clear that MEV will continue to play a substantial role in value generation and distribution.
Understanding the complex interplay between these four sources of value generation is crucial for investors and stakeholders in modular blockchain ecosystems. The balance of fees allocated to execution, data availability, settlement, and MEV extraction will shape the ecosystem's dynamics and determine its long-term sustainability. As these ecosystems continue to evolve, staying informed about the latest developments and innovations in value accrual mechanisms will be essential for making informed investment decisions.

IV. MEV in Modular Blockchains

Role of MEV in Value Accrual
MEV, or Miner/Maxer Extractable Value, has emerged as a defining factor in the value accrual landscape of blockchain ecosystems, including modular blockchains. MEV represents the additional value that miners, validators, and other network participants can extract by controlling the order of transactions within a block. It encompasses various strategies that involve reordering, front-running, or arbitraging transactions to maximize profit.
In traditional blockchains, MEV opportunities have grown significantly, offering an additional source of revenue for validators and miners. The ability to extract MEV has become a fundamental aspect of value generation in these ecosystems, and it continues to evolve as blockchain technology matures.
Current MEV Landscape
Within modular blockchains and their rollups, MEV extraction is still in its nascent stages. Many of these ecosystems rely on centralized sequencers, which process transactions on a first-come-first-serve basis. However, the MEV landscape is undergoing rapid changes, with several noteworthy developments:
- Centralized Sequencers: Many modular blockchains currently employ centralized sequencers for transaction processing. While these sequencers provide efficiency, they may not align with the decentralized ethos of blockchain technology. Efforts are underway to decentralize sequencers to ensure a more equitable and secure transaction ordering process.
- Auctioning the Right to Transaction Ordering: Some blockchain projects are exploring novel approaches to MEV extraction. They are considering auctioning the right to transaction ordering, allowing the highest bidder to decide the order of transactions within a block. This innovative model could create a competitive environment for transaction prioritization and revenue generation.
Emerging MEV Strategies in Modular Blockchains
Several innovative strategies are emerging within modular blockchain ecosystems to maximize MEV extraction:
- Flashbots and SUAVE: Projects like Flashbots have introduced SUAVE, a blockchain dedicated to sequencing transactions across multiple blockchains. SUAVE focuses on cross-domain MEV, enabling miners and validators to capture value from MEV opportunities across different blockchain networks. This approach addresses the challenge of MEV fragmentation and improves overall revenue potential.
- Sei and Skip within the Cosmos Ecosystem: Within the Cosmos ecosystem, projects like Sei and Skip are exploring ways to structure mempools (transaction pools) to enhance control over MEV extraction. These initiatives aim to optimize the transaction ordering process and increase MEV opportunities within the Cosmos network.
These developments indicate that rollups and modular blockchains are becoming key battlegrounds for MEV extraction. As these ecosystems gain adoption and transaction volume, the strategies for capturing MEV are likely to evolve further, impacting the overall value accrual landscape.
In the absence of specific plans from blockchain teams, predicting the exact outcomes of these changes on value accrual can be challenging. Nevertheless, it is clear that MEV will remain a critical factor in determining the value distribution within modular blockchain ecosystems.
As investors and stakeholders engage with these ecosystems, they should closely monitor MEV developments and strategies, as they have the potential to significantly influence the profitability and sustainability of these innovative blockchain networks.
In summary, MEV is not only a valuable revenue stream but also a driving force behind the evolution of blockchain ecosystems. Its role in transaction ordering, revenue generation, and network security underscores its importance in shaping the future of modular blockchains. As these ecosystems continue to mature and innovate, understanding and navigating the complex MEV landscape will be essential for those seeking to maximize their earning opportunities.

V. Future Outlook

Transition from Fat Protocols
The era of "Fat Protocols" may be coming to an end as modular blockchains gain traction. These ecosystems offer more efficient alternatives to all-encompassing monolithic blockchains.
Monetization Challenges and Opportunities
As data availability costs decrease, modular blockchains will need to find innovative ways to monetize their services. This presents both challenges and opportunities for the ecosystem's sustainability.
The Key Role of MEV in Future Ecosystems
MEV is poised to be a key battleground in the value accrual landscape of modular blockchains. Projects that can gain adoption and increase transaction volume may find that auctioning the right to transaction ordering is a crucial value capture mechanism.


The rise of modular blockchain ecosystems represents a transformative shift in the blockchain industry. These ecosystems offer efficient, scalable, and specialized solutions to the challenges faced by monolithic blockchains. As they continue to evolve, investors and stakeholders must navigate the complex landscape of value accrual, with MEV emerging as a pivotal factor in their success. The future of blockchain technology is modular, dynamic, and full of exciting earning opportunities for those who dare to explore it.

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